Male Factor Infertility

Cardone Reproductive Medicine and Infertility treats many cases of male infertility. Approximately 40% of our patients are faced with this issue. We often work in conjunction with urologists to resolve these types of infertility challenges, including for couples where the male partner has had a vasectomy.

Male factor problems may be related to:

  • Inadequate or abnormal sperm production and delivery
  • Anatomical problems
  • Previous testicular injuries or
  • Hormonal imbalances

After the male provides a semen sample, we analyze it with a battery of advanced andrology tests. In addition to the standard semen analysis using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, the sample is also analyzed for sperm migration to assess the number of motile sperm that can be extracted from the ejaculate.


If the semen analysis is normal, treatment will be based on the work-up of the female partner. A normal semen analysis includes:

  • A sperm concentration of greater than 20 million sperm/cc
  • Motility (movement) of greater than 40%, and
  • A volume greater than 2cc

Additionally, our laboratory uses the Kruger classification of a greater than 14% normal morphology.


An abnormal semen analysis is first repeated for verification. Typically, the male partner is referred to a urologist for evaluation. If the urologic evaluation is normal, results of the sperm migration will determine further treatment. For example, a total motile sperm count in excess of 1.5 million would make IUI an option. If the number is less than 1 million, then IVF is the treatment course.


Azoospermia is a condition where there is no sperm in the seminal fluid. In most cases, it is caused by either primary testicular failure or hormonal, chromosomal or obstructive abnormalities. Patients may need hormonal, urologic, genetic or ultrasonographic examinations to further evaluate the problem.